The name of Lennox is attached to a powerful earldom, controlling vast tracts of Dumbartonshire, Renfrewshire, and Stirlingshire. It evolved from an ancient southern Pict title, the Mormaer of 'Llevennahh' ('Llyfn-afon' in modern Welsh), ('Levenach' in Gaelic) meaning smooth river, and was firmly established by the 13th century. Malcom of Lennox, the 5th Earl, was recorded as attending Robert II's coronation in 1371.
After 1488, the title became associated with the Stewarts. Lord Henry Darnley, son of the 4th Stewart Earl of Lennox, was the short-lived husband of Mary Queen of Scots and, more particularly, the Darnley. Henry, Lord Darnley - the short-lived husband of Mary Queen of Scots - was the son of the 4th Earl. Esmé Stuart was created Duke of Lennox in 1579, becoming High Chamberlain of Scotland two years later.